Secure holograms are becoming popular in many
markets and are widely found on a host of
products and packaging, including
Pharmaceuticals, Food & Beverages, cosmetics,
watches, and sporting goods. Other secure uses
include apparel hang tags, certificates (Tax
registration, diamond jewelry, etc.) tickets
(theater shows, sporting event, etc.), coupons
(gift vouchers, payment receipts, etc.), and
many kinds of identification and membership
cards. You probably have a secure hologram in
your pocket...there has been one on every VISA
and MASTER CARD produced for the past many
years. Holograms also grace currency and
passports in countries such as Austria,
Bulgaria, Finland, Kuwait, Switzerland, and
Russia. In India, you'll find high secure
holograms on excise labels on liquor bottles in
many states, as well as on bank demand drafts
and a variety of government issued bonds and
certificates. Use of holograms on your product
and packaging will
Assure your customers that the product
is genuine and will perform according to
Increase or preserve sales by reducing
the sale and use of counterfeit products
Enhance the visual appeal of the product
or document and its packaging
Make exact product counterfeit more
difficult and unlikely
Provide potential forensic information
Establish defensive evidence against
possible defective product and negligence
For a printed item, such as an identity
card or document with intrinsic or exchange
value, ensure that only the correct individuals
carry the item or document
Ensure that only genuine items or
documents are in use
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HISTORY OF HOLOGRAMS
Holograms was first conceptualized in 1947 by Nobel Laureate Dr. Dennis
Gabor. Dr. Gabor is regarded as the father of holography. The Hungarian-born electrical engineer won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1971 for his remarkable invention. Holography was born as an attempt to improve the resolution of electron microscope. It was well known since 1936 that the resolving power of electron microscopes had to stop short of resolving atomic lattices, because the aperture of electron objectives could not be increased beyond a certain limit, owing to the spherical aberration which could not be corrected. Gabor considered the possibility of taking first a "bad" picture and correcting it by optical means. But in an ordinary electron microgram this is not possible, because one-half of the information has dropped out the phase of the electron waves. Gabor thought the phase gets dropped out, because there was nothing to compare it with. He tried to put in a known wave, as a phase standard. A little mathematical analysis showed that this would indeed work, one has only to superpose on the "bad" image, which is entirely unlike the true image, a "coherent background", (Later called a "reference wave".) If now one illuminates the "bad" picture with the coherent background, or a optical simulation of it, the true image will come out, because the original
wave front is reconstructed. Gabor termed the "bad" image, (which is indeed entirely unlike the object, it rather looks like a collection of fingerprints) a "hologram" (from the Greek
holos, "the whole"), because it contained all the information. He then verified the theory, in 1948, by optical experiments with coherent light.
The best example for this
kind of holograms is the master card hologram. When you
look at the hologram, the background wall paper text
appear as if it is printed inside the body of the card. If
you have not noticed it earlier, just take out your master
card and have a look.
Switching: Flip Flop
Two images appear one after the other when you tilt a
switching hologram. In anti counterfeit secure holograms,
usually the product or brand logo appear in first switch and a
message, graphics or repeated text appear in second switch..
The frames of an animated image can be
superimposed in a hologram and can be reconstructed with
reference wave at different angles. In other words, when you
tilt the hologram you will see the holographic animation frame
holograms can be created either from a solid model or a 3D
graphics file. A complex setup on a conventional mastering lab
can take a solid model as an object and record a 3D hologram.
The solid model has to be created meeting certain criteria.
The size of the model, surface finish, Stability are some of
the criteria which are critical.
technologies are applied for hologram
origination. The most popular among them are
Dot Matrix Holography
Within each of these technologies, origination
companies worldwide have developed a number of complex
techniques and processes.
In analog holography, there
are different techniques like Transmission Transfer
Holograms, One step rainbow holograms, HOE Images, LCD
Holograms (Digital Holograms) etc.
Within these techniques, many
different types of holograms and features possible. In
Transmission Transfer Holograms it is possible to make
Switching Holograms, Multi channel holograms, 2D-3D
holograms, 3D holograms, Animated holograms, Laser
Readable holograms, 90° Viewable holograms, Flashing
images, Kinetic Holograms etc.
These unlimited possibilities make the
duplication of holograms virtually impossible.
This is the conventional type of holography and the
processes are highly skill based.
The skilled holographer sets up the optical
elements like lenses, mirrors, splitters, filters and
collimators to create the image elements and secure
The process is very complex and time consuming.
The hologram created by this method, by two
different holographers from the same design
specifications are easily distinguishable by an even
an untrained eye.
Even for the same holographer, it is very
difficult to recreate exactly the same hologram for a
second time. The different types of holograms possible
in this type are
Switching or Flip-Flop
Parallax effect or 2D-3D holograms
90° viewable Images
3D holograms from Solid models
True color holograms
Laser readable Holograms
2. Dot Matrix Holograms
Hologram image is recorded as very fine pixels of
variable size, pitch, grating orientation and color by
using a fully computerized system. It is possible to
incorporate very dynamic optical effects and secure
features by carefully controlling various parameters.
This type of holograms has a very wide viewing angle,
as it is possible to assign different viewing angles
and colors to adjacent pixels.
The secure features possible in this type are
Linear kinetic effect
True colour images
Electron Lithography origination technology has been
developed for producing very high secure images, which
cannot be made by optical methods. This technology
produces holograms with a resolution of up to 0.1
High-resolution line patterns
Computer synthesized 2D-3D and 3D images